Poia Lake

Poia Lake, named after a hero in Blackfeet mythology, is a beautiful 30-acre body of water lying at an elevation of 5,800 feet near the transition zone of subalpine to alpine in the Kennedy Creek drainage.

Choose the challenging out and back hike, a mellow overnighter, or travel on the back of a horse.

Trailhead

Drive 2.8 miles west from the Many Glacier Entrance Station. Look for a parking lot on the right side of the road. The trail for Apikuni Falls leaves this spot, headed northwest and the Red Gap Pass Trail to the northeast. Poia Lake is on the Red Gap Pass Trail.

If you’re driving from the west, look for the parking area on the left 1.1 miles east of the Many Glacier Hotel road junction.

There is another trailhead. However, I don’t recommend it. The Sherburne Cut Off leaves from the entrance station and doesn’t bother with switchbacks as it climbs Swiftcurrent Ridge. You’ll climb 1,000 feet in one mile. The tradeoff is saving 2.4 miles. But with the reduction in distance comes a slower hiking speed because of the trail’s steep grade. You might save 15 – 20 minutes. If you’re wondering about using this footpath on the trip out, know that it has sections of loose material and poor footing. Some folks unaffectionately refer to this route as the luge.

Grizzly and black bears frequent this area. Be wise and make enough noise to not surprise the bruins. Carry bear spray where you can unholster it in a couple of seconds. Know when and how to use it.

The Hike

The trail climbs steadily through a forest interspersed with small meadows where it’s possible to spot whitetail deer, elk, moose, and bear. 

Moose Swiftcurrent Ridge, Red Gap Pass Trail, Glacier National Park
Young Bull Moose

After four miles, you’ll reach Swiftcurrent Ridge Lake (Moran’s Bathtub) on the south side of the ridge crest. It’s not worth fishing unless the idea of catching white sucker and lake chub interests you. Attempts to introduce grayling in the 1920s and 1930s failed because the lake lacked suitable spawning habitats.2

There’s a pretty sweet view south over the lake toward Allen and Wynn Mountains. 

From the lake, the trail uses several switchbacks to reach the ridge top and then descends into the Kennedy Creek drainage. This stream is the namesake of John Kennedy, not our revered past president, though. This particular Kennedy was a whiskey trader. In 1874, he built a trading post where Kennedy Creek flows into the Saint Mary River (9.5 miles northeast of Poia Lake).1 The Blackfeet named him Otatso, which means walking stooped. A tributary of Kennedy Creek bears that name.3

Be aware that the park service has closed the entire length of Kennedy Creek to fishing. 

Upon reaching Poia Lake, a trail on the left leads to the backcountry campground. The park allows two of the four sites to be reserved online.

Poia Lake, Glacier National Park
Poia Lake Evening

If you continue along the shoreline, there’s a bridge over the outlet and a path veering to the right from the Red Gap Pass Trail. Follow that route for great vantage points of Poia Lake Falls. 

If you keep an eye on the exposed rock faces of the surrounding mountains, the chances of seeing mountain goats are pretty good. Or, look for pika in the nearby talus slopes. Locate these furry little members of the rabbit family by their characteristic “eeep” calls and look for their “hay piles” in the talus near a meadow’s edge.

Pika
American Pika (CC BY-SA 4.0_ Frederic Dulude-de Broin)

Hike Summary

Total Distance: 13.1 miles
Total Elevation Gain: 1,676 feet; Loss: 808 feet
Difficulty: 16.5, strenuous
(Calculated using Petzoldt’s Energy Rated Mile equation.)
Total Walking Time Estimate: 6 hours 4 minutes
(Calculated using an average speed of 2.5 mph and Naismith’s correction for elevation gain.)

Notes

  1. Buchholtz, C W. Man in Glacier. West Glacier, MT: Glacier Natural History Association, Inc., 1976.
  2. Downs, Christopher C., and Carter Fredenberg. “Glacier National Park Fisheries Monitoring and Management Report 2016.” National Park Service History Publications. Last modified , 2016. http://npshistory.com/publications/glac/fisheries-ann-rpt/2015.pdf.
  3. Robinson, Donald H. Through the Years in Glacier National Park. West Glacier, MT: Glacier Natural History Association, Inc., 1973.
  4. Smith, Andrew. “The Art of Making Hay.” The National Wildlife Federation. Last modified April , 1997. https://www.nwf.org/Magazines/National-Wildlife/1997/The-Art-of-Making-Hay.

Howe Lake

Howe Lake, ridge, and creek are the namesakes of Charlie Howe, the first homesteader (1892) at the foot of Lake McDonald and the first white man to locate Avalanche Lake and Sperry Glacier.3

Howe Lake is an easy and worthwhile destination spring through fall. And it’s likely you’ll not find the trail crowded. If you’re looking for more to fill your day, there are a couple of options at the end of this post.

As always, please apply Leave No Trace principles.

Trailhead

From the T-intersection near the Apgar Visitor Center, travel northwest on the Camas Road for 1.3 miles. The Fish Creek Campground Road will be on the right. Drive for 1.1 miles on that road until it Ys. Bear left. 

The left fork puts you on the 100+-year-old Inside North Fork Road, which the Butte Oil Company carved through the timber in 1901. Although, at the time, calling it a road was probably a stretch. The unbridged, ungraded, and in places mucky route allowed the drillers to haul their machinery to the foot of Kintla Lake. Once the water froze, workers slid the equipment across the smooth surface to the drilling site.3,4

Drive 5.4 miles north on this historic and still somewhat primitive thoroughfare.

The Howe Lake Trailhead is on the right, and two small parking areas on the left. An interpretive sign, also on the left, describes the historic Matejka Homestead.

The Hike

About 13 percent of Glacier National Park burned during 2003, a record for the park. Lightning caused most of the fires that dry summer. Not so with the Robert Fire that burned this area. Careless humans started it. Snow finally put it out, but not until the flames had consumed 52,747 acres of timber.5

Helicopter used during Robert Fire, Glacier National Park 2003
Fire fighting helicopter carrying bucket over Lake McDonald with Robert Fire in the background. (National Park Service photo, Public Domain)

The trail leads you through young lodgepole pine stands, with widely spaced magnificent old larch trees that survived the inferno. Bright yellow glacier lilies and snow-white trillium put on excellent displays alongside the footpath in the spring. It’s impressive to see the healing taking place.

While you’re strolling along, be sure to make noise and have your bear spray where it’s quickly accessible. Know when and how to discharge it. We walked on top of grizzly bear tracks and dodged some scat during a May hike. On a separate trip, I encountered one of these powerful animals on the road just north of the Howe Lake Trailhead. Since the bruins use this area, it makes sense to be versed in bear safety.

At the Lake

Before you know it, the first glimpse of water comes into view through the trees, and arrival at the outlet soon follows. Howe Ridge is visible to the east. The crest is about 1,000 feet above the lake’s surface and crowned with a glacial moraine. Imagine this spot under at least 1,000 feet of ice. If it was 20,000 years ago during the Pleistocene’s Great Ice Age, that would have been the case.1,2

Howe Lake Glacier National Park
Howe Lake in May

The beaver dam across the outlet seems in pretty good shape. This is also true for the beaver lodge we spotted on the far side of the narrow channel connecting the lower and upper parts of the lake.

Howe Lake is an excellent place to see loons and other waterfowl. Be mindful that park service personnel prohibit fishing in the upper part of the lake until August to encourage loon nesting and protect their young until they attain fledging age. You’ll see the sign.

Common Loon
Common Loon (by John Picken CC BY 2.0)

Hike Summary

Total Distance: 3.2 miles
Total Elevation Gain: 240 feet; Loss: 108 feet
Difficulty*: 3.9, easy (Calculated using Petzoldt’s Energy Rated Mile equation.)
Total Walking Time: 1 hour 27 minutes (Calculated using an average speed of 2.5 mph and Naismith’s correction for elevation gain.)
*Difficulty: 0-4.9 easy, 5-9.9 moderate, 10+ strenuous

Options

If you choose to go farther, the trail continues east away from the lake and intersects the Howe Ridge trail in a little less than two miles. Or, once you return to your vehicle, drive another mile and a quarter north to the Camas Creek road closure. There, you’ll find the trailhead to Christensen Meadows and Rogers Meadow. I suggest this option. You can learn more about it here.


A comprehensive guidebook to extend your knowledge, promote adventure, and discovery while traveling one of the most scenic highways in the world.

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Notes

  1. Carrara, Paul E. ” Late Quaternary Glacial and Vegetative History of the Glacier National Park Region, Montana.” U.S. Geologic Survey. Last modified , 1989. https://pubs.usgs.gov/bul/1902/report.pdf.
  2. Raup, Omer B., Robert L. Earhart, James W. Whipple, and Paul E. Carrara. Geology Along Going-to-the-Sun Road Glacier National Park, Montana. West Glacier, MT: Glacier Natural History Association, 1983.
  3. Robinson, Donald H. Through the Years in Glacier National Park. Whitefish, MT: Glacier Natural History Association, Inc., 1973.
  4. Scott, Tristan. “The Road Less Traveled.” Flathead Beacon, May 11, 2017. https://flatheadbeacon.com/2017/05/11/road-less-traveled-2/.
  5. “The Fires of 2003: a synopsis.” The Trail Inside, Fall 2003. http://www.glacierparkfoundation.org/InsideTrail/IT_2004Win.pdf.

Swiftcurrent Lake Nature Trail

If you’re looking for a family-friendly hike that includes history, outstanding scenery, and wildlife, the loop around Swiftcurrent Lake in Many Glacier is hard to beat. This is one that can be enjoyed May through October.

Trailhead Location

The most popular places to access the trail are near the Many Glacier Hotel, or the Grinnell Glacier Trailhead found in the picnic area.

The road junction for the Many Glacier Hotel is four miles west of the Many Glacier Entrance Station. Make your way to the hotel parking lot. From there, it’s a short walk to the lakeshore.

A half-mile past the road intersection to the Many Glacier Hotel is a picnic area. Find the trail either at the Grinnell Glacier Trailhead, at the south end of the parking lot, or near the east junction of the picnic area road and the Many Glacier Road.

The Hike

This post describes the walk beginning at the Many Glacier Hotel boat dock and proceeds clockwise. Starting and finishing there allows twice the time to enjoy the historic structure set in a world-class view, stroll around inside and maybe find a snack, beverage, or meal. If a trail ride is something you want to fit into your day, the Many Glacier Corral is at the back of the parking lot.

The Many Glacier Hotel opened on July 4, 1915, and survived economic downturns and the floods of 1964, 1975, and 2006.1 When smoke cleared after Heavens Peak Fire in 1936, the hotel was still standing, but there was little else.2 For over a century, the Many Glacier Hotel has hosted presidents, celebrities, rambunctious wranglers, and visitors from around the world.3

Without a doubt, Grinnell Point steals the show when looking across Swiftcurrent Lake. Add Mount Gould and Angel Wing to the south and Mount Wilbur to the north, and it’s spellbinding.

A great treat of this route is the possibility of seeing moose. Glacier National Park has a Wildlife Safety webpage with tips on sharing the land with these impressive animals. Also, deer frequent the area, as do bears. If you’ve had little experience traveling through bear habitat, the park has an informative Bear Safety webpage that’s worth visiting.

From the boat dock, head south along the roadway for about 500 feet to the trailhead. The footpath never strays far from the shoreline. After about half a mile, the path brings you near the boathouse for the 1961 45-foot vessel Chief Two Guns and crew member cabins.

Glacier National Park, Grinnell Point from the Swiftcurrent Lake Nature Trail
Grinnell Point

The first bridge on the route crosses Cataract Creek flowing out of Lake Josephine and Stump Lake. A quarter-mile past the bridge, the loop trail intersects the Grinnell Glacier Trail. At that place, a left turn begins a worthy side-trip to Lake Josephine, 0.2 miles away. The historic 1945 45-foot Morning Eagle passenger boat docks there and has been carrying passengers on the lake since 1960. Mount Gould and Angel Wing across the water to the southwest, framed by Grinnell Point to the north and Allen Mountain to the south, are spectacular.

Glacier National Park, Lake Josephine and Morning Eagle tour boat
Morning Eagle on a stormy fall day

From the Swiftcurrent Lake Loop Trail and Grinnell Glacier Trail junction, a right turn continues into a little more densely wooded section of the walk with fewer lake views. You’ll see the Chief Two Guns south boat dock almost immediately. In 0.4 miles, there is a bridge over Swiftcurrent Creek and then a quarter mile to the picnic grounds’ parking lot. Continue right on the blacktop for 300 feet. The footpath is on your right.

The trail meanders for a half-mile between the Many Glacier Road to its north and Swiftcurrent Lake to the south. After that distance, you’re at the asphalt leading to the Many Glacier Hotel.

Glacier National Park Many Glacier Hotel on Swiftcurrent Lake
Many Glacier Hotel across Swiftcurrent Lake with Wynn Mountain and Allen Mountain in the background.

Two of the original eight chalets erected during 1911 are standing across the roadway from the trail. At that time the Many Glacier Hotel only existed on paper and in the minds of the designers.5 An avalanche wiped out one chalet a few winters after construction. The 1936 Heavens Peak Fire took most everything else.2

The route continues along the hotel road to the bridge over Swiftcurrent Creek. Downstream is Swiftcurrent Falls. Several walking paths lead away from the south side of the bridge, allowing visitors to view the cascades from several perspectives.

It’s a quarter-mile back to the boat dock from the bridge.

Hike Summary

Total Distance: 2.3 miles
Total Elevation Gain: level
Difficulty: 2.3, easy (Calculated using Petzoldt’s Energy Rated Mile equation.)
Total Walking Time: 55 minutes (Calculated using an average 2.5 mph speed.)

Places to see and things to do.

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Notes

  1. Bristol, George. Glacier National Park: a culmination of giants. Las Vegas: University of Nevada Press, 2017.
  2. Guthrie, C.W. The First 100 Years. Helena, MT: Farcountry Press, 2008.
  3. Hagen, John. “A History of Many Glacier.” Glacier Park  Foundation. Last modified, 2012. http://www.glacierparkfoundation.org/History/mgh.html.
  4. Kiser, Fred H. “Site of Chalet Camp On Lake McDermott.” Montana Memory Project. https://tinyurl.com/y885ebue.
  5. “Many Glacier Chalets aka Swiftcurrent Chalets.” The National Park Lodge Architecture Society. Last modified , 2010. https://www.nplas.org/swiftcurrent.html
  6. “Many Glacier Historic District.” National Register of Historic Places. Last modified September 29, 1976. https://tinyurl.com/32rzzezn 
  7. Minetor, Randi. Historic Glacier National Park: the stories behind one of America’s great treasures. Guilford, CT: Rowan and Littlefield, 2016.
  8. “Pack Train Arriving At Many-Glacier Chalets. “See America First” Great Northern Railway.” Minnesota Historical Society. http://collections.mnhs.org/cms/display.php?irn=10767548.
  9. Robinson, Donald H. Through the Years: in Glacier National Park. 5th ed. West Glacier, MT: Glacier Natural History Association, Inc., 1973.

3 Lakes, Waterfalls & Swiftcurrent Pass

Hiking and history notes for your walk up the spectacular Swiftcurrent Valley.

Suppose you don’t feel like climbing to the pass. In that case, there are three wonderful subalpine lakes plus waterfalls to see along the route. They involve shorter distances and not much elevation gain. You’ll find more information in this post.

If you want more than the pass, Swiftcurrent Lookout Trail heads north near the pass and climbs 1,248 feet over 1.4 miles. The views from up there are outstanding.

Another option is to begin at Logan Pass and walk the Highline Trail past Granite Park Chalet until the path intersects the Swiftcurrent Pass Trail. Follow that back to Many Glacier. This route is a little over 15 miles with 2,844 feet total elevation gain and 4,553 feet loss. Transportation logistics are a must with this trip. Consider leaving your vehicle at the Logan Pass parking lot. At Many Glacier, catch a fee-based hiker’s shuttle to Saint Mary. From Saint Mary, use the free Glacier National Park Shuttles to return to Logan Pass.

The rest of this post is devoted to the out and back hike from Many Glacier to Swiftcurrent Pass.

The Trailhead

Once on the Many Glacier Road, drive to the parking lot in front of the Swiftcurrent Motor Inn (originally Swiftcurrent Auto Camp). This spot is five miles west of the Many Glacier entrance station. The well-marked Swiftcurrent Pass Trail begins just west of the inn.


The main building and cabins mark the “turning of a page” in Glacier National Park history. In the park’s early days, the Great Northern Railway (GNR) lured wealthy folks away from their vacations in the Swiss Alps and to the “alps” of America in Glacier National Park. These tourists expected top-shelf service, and they got it for a price.

Around the early 1930s, a different type of visitor emerged. The automobile made it possible for tourists to be mobile and independent of Great Northern. They demanded less extravagant lodging and service than that offered by the Many Glacier Hotel. Their voices were heard.

In 1933, Swiftcurrent Auto Camp began with the building of cabins described as “spartan and inexpensive.” Construction continued in 1935 with a general store at the east end of the current main building. In the 1940s, builders added the lobby space and restaurant at the west end.12 If you get a chance, it’s worth a look inside these historical buildings.

Long before the auto camp, horses and their riders rode down the Swiftcurrent Valley, making their way to the Many Glacier Hotel. This was the last leg of a multi-day backcountry camping trip known as the North Circle.3 As you walk along the Swiftcurrent Pass Trail, know that you are enjoying the same magnificent scenery that many have for over a century.

Fishercap Lake (0.7 miles)

A quarter-mile after leaving the trailhead, a path veers left toward the shore of the lake with the peculiar name. The Blackfeet gave their friend George B. Grinnell the moniker Fishercap, which was then attached to the lake.9

The soft glow of early morning light on the water, Swiftcurrent Mountain, Mount Wilbur, and Bullhead Point creates an excellent scene for photographs. Not only that, but the valley from Fishercap Lake to Bullhead Lake has superb moose habitat. And, although there are no guarantees, the best time to see these impressive animals is early morning and evening.

Glacier National Park, Many Glacier Region, Fishercap Lake
Fishercap Lake

Redrock Lake (1.3 miles) & Redrock Falls

The Swiftcurrent Pass Trail continues from the Fishercap Lake Trail junction through mixed lodgepole pine and fir forest. Intermixed stands of quaking aspen show off glowing yellow leaves in October. One and a half miles from the trailhead, there is a short side path to a gravel beach on the north side of Redrock Lake. It’s worth a look.

Continue toward the west end of the lake and find a spur trail at 1.8 miles leading to the lower part of Redrock Falls. The best show is early in the season. After you return to the primary route, climb a little, and then pass next to Swiftcurrent Creek and the upper section of the falls.

Glacier National Park, Many Glacier Region, Redrock Lake
Redrock Lake

The conspicuous red to maroon rock from which the lake and falls take their name is part of the 2,500-feet-thick Grinnell Formation. Over a billion years ago, a Siberia size landmass began separating from what would become North America. A shallow inland sea formed in the resulting basin. Here, streams and rivers dumped the silt and sand they carried from the surrounding lifeless land. Over time, heat, pressure, and oxygen content produced multi-colored layers of rock. Then, tectonic forces pushed those layers, which were miles deep, eastward 50 miles, and upward.1

When the park’s rocks were forming, life in the ancient sea consisted of single-celled cyanobacteria. Since 3.5 billion years ago, these primitive organisms have produced oxygen and contributed substantially to an atmosphere that supports life as we know it.11 Stromatolites, fossils of the structures these organisms made, exist not only in the Grinnell Formation but within many others throughout the park.4

During the Pleistocene Epoch, glaciers thousands of feet deep filled the valleys of what is now Glacier National Park. Peaks of the mountains would have appeared like islands in the seas of ice. When the glaciers receded around 12,000 years ago, they left amazing hanging and u-shaped valleys, aretes, horns, and cirques that characterize the park.

Bullhead Lake (3.9 miles to the west end)

You’ll cross a suspension bridge over a stream flowing from Windmaker Lake about three and a half miles from the trailhead. Watch for a path headed toward Bullhead Lake about 500 feet after the bridge. I think the views are better there than those at the west end of the lake. 

Glacier National Park, Many Glacier Region, Bullhead Lake
Bullhead Lake

 A couple hundred feet farther west from the junction mentioned above, some not so apparent trails lead down to the shore. I used one of those when I needed to replenish my water supply coming back from the pass. Be sure to use some sort of water purification system.

Swiftcurrent Headwall

After leaving the west end of Bullhead Lake, cross Swiftcurrent Creek and head south into the drainage nestled at the base of Mount Grinnell, the Garden Wall, and a flank of Swiftcurrent Mountain. The trail crosses a pretty braided stream channel, but there is a plank bridge. It’s put in place in June and taken out in September. Check Glacier National Park’s Trail Status Reports.

In 1910, an official from the Department of the Interior visited the newly established Glacier National Park. He hired Josiah Rogers, an owner of stock and packer on the west side, to take him through the park, including a trip over Swiftcurrent Pass at the end of the journey. Rogers balked at this last request. He finally agreed when a contract guaranteed $100 for each horse lost while traveling over the dangerous route.9

The ride over a primitive trail scratched into cliffs must have made an impression on Roger’s guest. In those days, there wasn’t much money available for the park. But somehow, the government found funds to reconstruct the Swiftcurrent Pass Trail.9

One must climb over three miles using several switchbacks cut into the headwall to reach the pass. Otherwise known as “Galen’s Ladder,” workers constructed these hairpin-turns for the footpath during the 1913 trail reconstruction.9

Grand waterfalls plummeting down the eastern rock face of the Garden Wall add to the spectacular scenery as you gain elevation. Swiftcurrent Glacier clings to an east face of the Garden Wall not far below the ridge top. Several viewing points will present themselves as you make your way up the trail. This glacier has decreased about 71% since the mid-1800s.10 Modern glaciers, like Swiftcurrent, are not holdovers from the Pleistocene, which ended about 12,000 years ago. The 26 remaining glaciers in the park have only been around for 7,000 years.8

Glacier National Park, Many Glacier Region, Swiftcurrent Glacier
The USGS Repeat Photography Project documents the shrinking of glaciers in Glacier National Park.13

“A rolling wall of flame.”9 Park superintendent Scoyen said, “I have never seen as complete a burn-out as occurred in Swiftcurrent Valley. With the exception of a few swampy areas, every green living thing from rocks on one side of the valley to the other, has been destroyed.”5 Those words described the 8,364-acre, 1936 Heaven’s Peak Fire and its aftermath.

The new Swiftcurrent Ranger Station and other buildings rise from the ash of the 1936 Heaven’s Peak Fire, ca. 1938. (source unknown)

It all began on August 18, with a lightning strike above the Glacier Wall west of the continental divide. On August 31, violent winds carried firebrands east over Swiftcurrent Pass. They ignited the forest as much as 1.5 miles ahead of the main fire. The Many Glacier Hotel was spared, but the wildfire consumed many other buildings.5

Glacier National Park, Heaven's Peak Fire Map
Map of the Heaven’s Peak Fire of 1936.2

Looking down on the green Swiftcurrent Valley from several viewing points along the headwall, one would never suspect that such an inferno was part of Many Glacier’s history.

Devil’s Elbow is the last major switchback on the trail. Envision sitting on a horse or leading the critters around that hairpin turn with a vertical drop of hundreds of feet within a few steps of the path.

Swiftcurrent Pass

A small pile of rock rubble on the left side of the footpath marks the pass at 7,185 feet. It is all that remains of the base constructed in 1926 to support a locomotive bell. GNR installed bells at Swiftcurrent, Piegan, Siyeh Passes, and a fourth near Scenic Point. Great Northern borrowed the unique Swiss custom of placing bells on mountain tops and passes so that hikers could produce a loud clang upon arrival. It was in line with the railway’s advertising slogan “Alps of America” to promote Glacier National Park.9

Glacier National Park, Many Glacier Region, Swiftcurrent Pass
Remains of the 1926 bell foundation

Hike Summary

Total Distance: 13.7 miles
Total Elevation Gain: 2,611 feet; Loss: 370 feet
Difficulty: 18.9, strenuous
(Calculated using Petzoldt’s Energy Rated Mile equation.)
Total Walking Time Estimate: 6 hours 47 minutes
(Calculated using an average speed of 2.5 mph and Naismith’s correction for elevation gain.)

New To Glacier National Park?

I invite you to take a look at my book Glacier National Park, Going-to-the-Sun Road: a traveler’s guide. I’m confident it will help with your planning and exploration of this engineering masterpiece and the surrounding wilderness. See it here on Apple Books.


Notes

  1. Bentley, Callan. “The Belt Supergroup in Glacier National Park.” American Geophysical Union. Accessed February 18, 2019. https://blogs.agu.org/mountainbeltway/2013/08/27/guest-post-the-belt-supergroup-in-glacier-national-park/.
  1. “Glacier Fire Map 1910-2015.” Glacier National Park Fire History. https://www.nps.gov/glac/learn/nature/fire-history.htm.
  1. “Glacier National Park Tourist Trails: Inside Trail; South Circle; North Circle.” National Archives Catalog. https://catalog.archives.gov/id/71974954
  1. Hunt-Foster, Rebecca K. “The Stromatolites of Glacier National Park.” National Park Service Park Paleontology News – Vol. 10, No. 2, Fall 2018. Last modified , 2018. https://www.nps.gov/articles/park-paleo-fall-2018-stromatolites.htm.
  1. Larson, Rolf L. “Firestorm!.” Glacier Park Foundation. Last modified , 2012. http://www.glacierparkfoundation.org/History/firestorm.html.
  1. “Moose.” Wikipedia. Last modified January 13, 2021. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moose.
  1. “Moose – Alces americanus.” Montana Field Guide. Montana Natural Heritage Program and Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks.. http://fieldguide.mt.gov/speciesDetail.aspx?elcode=AMALC03010.
  1. “Overview of Glacier National Park’s Glaciers.” National Park Service: Glacier National Park. Last modified August 17, 2021. https://www.nps.gov/glac/learn/nature/glaciersoverview.htm.
  1. Robinson, Donald H. Through the Years in Glacier National Park. West Glacier, MT: Glacier Natural History Association, Inc., 1973.
  1. “Status of Glaciers in Glacier National Park.” United States Geological Survey Northern Rocky Mountain Science Center. https://www.usgs.gov/centers/norock/science/retreat-glaciers-glacier-national-park?qt-science_center_objects=1#qt-science_center_objects.
  1. “Stromatolites.” Indiana University. https://geol105b.sitehost.iu.edu/images/gaia_chapter_10/stromatolites.htm
  1. “Swiftcurrent Auto Camp Historic District.” National Register of Historic Places Digital Archive on NPGallery. Last modified January 1, 1996. https://npgallery.nps.gov/NRHP/AssetDetail?assetID=9e575759-c2a0-4079-8d43-99638b12c14a.
  1. “Swiftcurrent Glacier. Glacier National Park, Montana. Repeat photography 1910 – 2016.” United States Geological Survey Denver Library Photographic Collection. https://www.sciencebase.gov/catalog/item/5efcf7f882ce3fd7e8a5bb10.
  1. ​​”USGS Denver Library Photographic Collection: Glaciers of Glacier National Park Repeat Photography.” USGS: science for a changing world. https://usgs.libguides.com/usgsphotolib/glaciernp.

Autumn Creek Trail

If solitude is what you’re after, this hike near the southeast border of Glacier National Park will deliver. Explore as little, or as much, as your group can handle. However, you’ll need two vehicles for the entire point-to-point trek. Remember, the park service prohibits dogs on all trails. And that’s a good thing in this grizzly bear habitat.

Glacier National Park, grizzly bear track
A July grizzly bear track one-half mile from the trailhead to Firebrand Pass

Trailhead

The trip begins atop the Continental Divide at Marias Pass and ends 8.6 miles later at a vehicle pullout on the north side of U.S. Highway 2 close to mile marker 203—the usual start for the Firebrand Pass hike.

At Marias Pass, on the north side of U.S. Highway 2, there is a large gravel area near the railroad tracks. Park there, cross the rails and walk along the tree line to find a trail headed north. This is the Summit spur trail, which provides access to the Autumn Creek Trail.

Glacier National Park, Little Dog Mountain and Summit Mountain
Little Dog Mountain and Summit Mountain from near the Summit Spur Trailhead in September

Hike

After one-half mile, the trail crosses an earthen dam on the west end of Three Bears Lake. In 1902, Great Northern Railway (GNR) built this structure and another one on the east end to raise the water level of the naturally occurring Summit Lake. GNR needed the increased volume to supply a 50,000-gallon storage tank at Marias Pass.1 There, steam locomotives replenished their onboard water supply.

GNR Steam Locomotive at Summit Station, Marias Pass, MT
Steam locomotive at Summit Station, Marias Pass, MT (Great Northern Railway photograph)

When you intersect the Autumn Creek Trail, 1.1 miles from the trailhead, turn right. The easy-going path reaches its highest point of just under 6,000 feet in elevation 4.5 miles from the start and directly under the mountain formation known as The Mummy.

The footpath leads you through an open lodgepole pine forest with bear grass, huckleberries, and grouse whortleberries in much of the understory. When spring brings good rains, and there is ample soil moisture, bear grass blooms are spectacular. Small meadows along the path are home to a variety of other wildflowers. During June and July, they show off with multicolored displays.

Seven miles from the trailhead, look for the Lubec Trail junction (some refer to it as the Coonsa Trail). It’s another 1.5 miles to U.S. Highway 2. Panning east to west, Calf Robe Mountain, Summit Mountain, and Little Dog Mountain provide a spectacular scene.

Hike Summary

Total Distance: 8.6 miles
Total Elevation Gain: 1,116 feet; Loss: 1,219 feet
Difficulty: 10.7, strenuous
(Calculated using Petzoldt’s Energy Rated Mile equation.)
Total Walking Time Estimate: 4 hours
(Calculated using an average 2.5 mph speed and Naismith’s correction for elevation gain.)

Autumn Creek Trail – Blacktail Hills Option

In winter, the Blacktail Hills route is popular with skiers and snowshoers. You’ll also need to plan for two vehicles on this point-to-point outing. The trip begins at Marias Pass, as described above, and ends near mile-marker 194 (193.8) on U.S. Highway 2. There is a pullout on the south side of the highway just east of the exit point. I recommend ending here so the steepest part of the trip is experienced going downhill.

Turn left (west) when reaching the Autumn Creek Trail. Little Dog Mountain will be north of the trail and Elk Mountain will appear to the west. During winter, the open areas on the east side of Elk Mountain down to Autumn Creek can be hazardous.

Orange tags on the trees mark the route. These are especially helpful after a snowstorm. If you’re traveling this trail in winter, be sure to check the Avalanche Report.

Hike Summary

Total Distance: 5.7 miles
Total Elevation Gain: 579 feet; Loss: 1,126 feet
Difficulty: 6.9 moderate
(Calculated using Petzoldt’s Energy Rated Mile equation.)
Total Walking Time Estimate: 2 hours, 34 minutes
(Calculated using an average 2.5 mph speed and Naismith’s correction for elevation gain.)

Notes

  1. “Three Bears Lake and Dams.” Library of Congress. Historic American Engineering Record National Park Service (HAER No. MT-88). https://cdn.loc.gov/master/pnp/habshaer/mt/mt0200/mt0273/data/mt0273data.pdf.

Grinnell Glacier & Upper Grinnell Lake

On November 2, 1887, after three days of bushwhacking, George Bird Grinnell, Jack Monroe, and James Willard Schultz scaled the headwall of a magnificent glacial valley. The team was probably all smiles when they climbed up onto the glacier Grinnell had spotted through his spyglass two years earlier.2 Grinnell estimated the depth of the ice, which would later bear his name, at 600 feet.2

Grinnell became one of the prominent personalities who worked tirelessly to gain national park status for the extraordinary land he had explored.

Today millions of people travel to Glacier National Park. The Many Glacier Region, in the northeastern part of the park, is a hiker’s paradise. And one of the most popular destinations in this area is Grinnell Glacier. The trip to what remains of the once-mighty glacier often shows up in visitor’s top ten “must-do” lists. During July and August, don’t expect any solitude. But do expect to be awed by the scenery.

Glacier National Park, Many Glacier Region, Grinnell Lake, and Angel Wing
Grinnell Lake with Angel Wing rising from the far shore.

If you’d like to mix it up a bit, consider buying passage on the boats Chief Two Guns and Morning Eagle. Chief Two Guns is a 45-foot, 49 passenger launch that motors across Swiftcurrent Lake. Its dock at the foot of the lake is near the Many Glacier Hotel. Once at the head of the lake, there is a short walk to the pier on Lake Josephine. There the 49 passenger Morning Eagle is waiting to take folks to the head of her lake. Using the boats will knock off a little over three miles of the walk to the glacier. Check out Glacier Park Boat Company’s website for current fees and time schedules.

Planning

It’s not uncommon for the park service to post a warning or close the Grinnell Glacier Trail because of grizzly bears. If you’re unfamiliar with traveling through bear habitat, I recommend Glacier National Park’s Bear Safety web page. There’s a lot of valuable information, including a video presentation by a park bear biologist.

Also, check the Glacier National Park Trail Status page. The following is an example from July 10, 2021.


Grinnell Glacier Trail

CLOSED for bear frequenting from Thunderbird Falls to the end of the trail 7/10/21 per 822

Projected initial clearing date: 7/23/21 per 650 

High-angle snow hazards exist approximately 1.5 miles above the junction with Josephine Lake (3.5 miles from the trailhead at the picnic area). Crampons, ice axe, and extensive experience with ice travel would be recommended.


And while you’re at it, visit Glacier National Park’s Trail and Area Closings and Postings web page.

I also encourage you to check the National Weather Service Recreation Safety Forecast web page to reduce the chances of nasty weather surprises.

If you’ve not done many longer hikes in the backcountry, consider REI’s Day Hiking Checklist. It’s a good one.

Trailhead

Hiking the entire Grinnell Glacier Trail is the focus of this post. The strenuous hike begins in the Many Glacier picnic area about 0.5-miles past the road to the Many Glacier Hotel. The trailhead is well marked at the south end of the parking lot, which fills early during July and August. Additional parking is sometimes available just before the picnic area beside the road.

The Many Glacier Hotel is an alternate starting point. You will meander along the eastern and southern shores of Swiftcurrent Lake before intersecting the Grinnell Glacier Trail. This route is about three-tenths of a mile longer than that starting at the picnic area.

Hike

The first two miles of the footpath are relatively level and forested. You’ll walk along the western shores of Swiftcurrent Lake and Lake Josephine. Grinnell Point, the prominence seen from the Many Glacier Hotel, rises to the north.

After the Josephine Trail junction, the climb begins in earnest. The icy-cold Grinnell Falls, crashing 960 feet down the headwall, appears about one mile past the Josephine intersection.1 With elevation gain, trees become fewer and stunted. A great birds-eye perspective of the u-shaped glacial valley with its shimmering lakes then opens up. To appreciate the immensity of this landscape, one needs to experience it. Photographs fall short.

Glacier National Park, Many Glacier Region, Grinnell Falls
Grinnell Falls

About 3.5 miles from the trailhead, Thunderbird Falls spills onto the cliff-hugging trail. Then, a short distance up the path, one may encounter a steep snowfield burying the footpath. This frozen mass can persist into July and might be dangerous to cross. Checking with park rangers about potential hazards before embarking would be a good call.

One is likely to walk over fossilized ripple marks exposed during trail construction. Water agitation in the shallow sea environment of the ancient Belt Sea formed these sediment ridges over one billion years ago. During hundreds of millions of years, thousands of feet of sediment stacked one layer upon another in the sea basin. Heat and pressure cemented the loose particles into solid rock. Finally, tectonic forces shoved the massive rock mass eastward 50 miles and uplifted it as it slid over the top of much younger rock. The foundation of Glacier National Park started as the mucky bed of the Belt Sea.

As the climb continues, the route becomes a narrow shelf blasted into the side of a cliff. Far below at the bottom of the steep drop-off is Grinnell Lake, a turquoise gem. Rising abruptly from its far shore is the sheer rock face of Angel Wing, backed by the massive Mount Gould. A near-vertical rock wall is the view on the opposite side of the trail.

Glacier National Park, Many Glacier Region, Grinnell Glacier Trail - cliffs
Cliff bands above Grinnell Lake with Angel Wing and Mount Gould

When the path leaves its perch on the rock face, it crosses open areas where you might see bighorn sheep and mountain goats. A picnic area with a pit toilet offers a great place to rest before the final 400-foot and 0.4-mile climb over the glacial moraine to Grinnell Glacier and Upper Grinnell Lake.

Grinnell Glacier

The ice-scoured rock beside Upper Grinnell Lake is a popular place to hang out, surrounded by fantastic scenery. Directly across the water, Salamander Falls plummets 440 feet with meltwater from Salamander Glacier.4

Salamander, once part of the vast Grinnell Glacier, shrunk 23 percent between 1966 and 2015.3

The remnants of Grinnell Glacier lie at the south end of the cirque beneath the massive Mount Gould. During the same period mentioned above, Grinnell lost 45 percent of its area.3

The USGS Repeat Photography Project documents changes in glaciers by placing historical photographs alongside more recent photographs taken from the same location. The pictures of Grinnell Glacier say it all.

In the past, rangers took visitors out onto Grinnell Glacier. This no longer happens. The risks of crossing the outlet of Upper Grinnell Lake and walking on top of weakened ice with hidden crevasses are too great.

Since 1900, the mean annual temperature for Glacier National Park and the surrounding region has increased by 1.3 ℃, which is 1.8 times the global mean increase.3

Gem Glacier succumbed to rises in temperature and lost its classification as a glacier because it no longer met the 25-acre criteria.3 The last bit of the former glacier hugs the Garden Wall south of Salamander and west of Mount Gould.

Hike Summary

Total Distance: 10.6 miles
Total Elevation Gain: 2,277 feet; Loss: 701 feet
Difficulty: 15.2, strenuous
(calculated using Petzoldt’s Energy Rated Miles)
Estimated Walking Time: 5 hours 22 minutes
(calculated using an average 2.5 mph walking speed and Naismuth’s Rule to compensate for elevation gain)

New To Glacier National Park?

I invite you to take a look at my book Glacier National Park, Going-to-the-Sun Road: a traveler’s guide. I’m confident it will help with your planning and exploration of the park. See it here on Apple Books.

Notes

  1. “Grinnell Falls, Glacier County, Montana, United States.” World Waterfall Database. Last modified March 19, 2017. https://www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com/waterfall/Grinnell-Falls-482.
  2. Minetor, Randi. Historic Glacier National Park: the stories behind one of America’s Great Treasures. Guilford, CT: Rowman & Littlefield, 2016.
  3. “Retreat of Glaciers in Glacier National Park.” United States Geological Survey. Last modified, 2013. http://npshistory.com/publications/glac/glacier-retreat-2013.pdf.
  4. Salamander Falls, Glacier County, Montana, United States.” World Waterfall Database. Last modified March 19, 2017. https://www.worldwaterfalldatabase.com/waterfall/Salamander-Falls-759.

Gable Pass via Lee Ridge

This adventure in the Belly River region begins in the northeastern corner of Glacier National Park, about three-quarters of a mile south of the international border with Canada. If exploring a remote area in the Glacier National Park wilderness appeals to you, read on.

Planning

Because of the location, consider distances to the nearest help should an emergency arise. The nearest are the Belly River Ranger Station and the U.S. Customs Station. Depending where you are in the hike, one will be better than the other. Know that there is no cell phone coverage.

Be honest with yourself about your physical condition.

Water is fleeting on Lee Ridge. I wouldn’t plan on replenishing your supplies en route. “Bring plenty of water” is a commonly given piece of advice but a little vague for me. So, consider a general rule of thumb. Consume at least 0.5 liters per hour. For this trip then, the minimum estimated volume of water to carry is 3.2 liters. It was close to 80° Fahrenheit on my last trek up Lee Ridge, and I drank about 4 liters.

If you’re unfamiliar with traveling through bear habitat, I recommend Glacier National Park’s Bear Safety web page. There’s a lot of valuable information, including a video presentation by a park bear biologist.

Check the Glacier National Park Trail Status page.

Check Glacier National Park’s Trail and Area Closings and Postings.

Check the National Weather Service Recreation Safety Forecast.

If you’ve not done many longer hikes in the backcountry, consider REI’s Day Hiking Checklist. It’s a good one.


Trailhead

From Saint Mary, drive north 13 miles on U.S. Highway 89 to the junction with Montana Highway 17 (Chief Mountain Highway). Continue 13.7 miles on Highway 17 and look for a parking turnout on the right side of the road. If you reach a large parking lot on the left within sight of the Chief Mountain Border Station, you’ve gone too far. Backtrack about one-half mile. From the south end of the parking turnout, walk southeast along the highway about 550 feet (0.1 miles) to find the trail marked with an orange tag nailed to a tree.

Chief Mountain, Ninaki Peak, and Papoose
Chief Mountain from the Chief Mountain Highway

Hike

The first 4.5 miles of this trip are through a lodgepole pine forest. An abundance of thimbleberry (in full bloom the first week of July) and other plants like bead lily, false Salomon’s-seal, and spotted coral-root point to a moist environment. The mosquitos are a confirmation of that.

At 2.4 miles, the Lee Ridge Trail slope increases to about 10% for 3 miles. The last 0.6 miles steepens again before reaching the Gable Pass Trail junction. This intersection is also at the highest elevation of the hike at 7,447 feet.

The footpath crosses the treeline at 4.6 miles from the trailhead and fades away into the alpine tundra. Rock cairns within eyesight of each other lead to the Gable Pass Trail.

You’ll notice an extensive area where rock and plant life form alternating rows in a stair-step pattern. This unique ecosystem is an alpine fellfield—plants living here experience severe cold, wind, little moisture, and a short growing season. The mounds of the pink-flowered moss campion and the matt-forming white mountain avens are the most common plants thriving in this harsh environment.

Glacier National Park, Belly River Region, Lee Ridge fell fields
Lee Ridge fellfield

As you make your way toward the end of the Lee Ridge route, Gable Mountain towers directly ahead. Toward the west, the tallest peak in Glacier National Park, Mount Cleveland, dominates the spectacular panorama of mountain peaks. (See the photo at the top of this post.)

Glacier National Park, Belly River Region, Gable Mountain
Gable Mountain from the upper tundra section of Lee Ridge.

At the junction, proceed eastward. Chief Mountain is to the left and only about two miles away. The Blackfeet people have long held a spiritual connection with this geologic feature. Ninaki Peak and Papoose are the two lesser prominences between Chief and the trail. One legend from the Piegan Tribe of the Blackfeet Nation explains how those mountains got their names.

Glacier National Park, Belly River Region, Chief Mountain, Ninaki Peak, and Papoose
Chief Mountain, Ninaki Peak, and Papoose

Approaching Gable Pass, the trail drops and climbs as it winds through enormous limestone boulders. We saw cat tracks (four toes, rounded shape, no claw marks) in the mud and assumed a bobcat made them since they were only about 1.5 inches across. A lynx or mountain lion could be 2-3 times wider. Of course, this is assuming an adult made the imprints. We also came across the blocky prints of a mountain goat.

Before the final brief descent to Gable Pass, we took advantage of a location offering nice flat rocks and outstanding landscape views to have a snack. While one hand grasped the food, the other swatted at biting insects. The bites were not the gentle little pokes of mosquitos. These guys meant business.

The Return Trip

Backtrack and call it a day. Or, go back to the Gable Pass and Lee Ridge trail intersection. Instead of turning right, continue straight ahead. It will be a steep 3.8 miles down to the Belly River Ranger Station. From there, take the Belly River Trail northeast for six miles. Once at the trailhead, it will still be 0.5 miles walking along the highway back to your vehicle. Instead of 13 miles, completing the loop will be closer to a 17-mile day.

Hike Summary

Total Distance: 13.2 miles
Total Elevation Gain: 2,367 feet; Loss: 637 feet
Difficulty: 17.9, strenuous ( calculated using Petzoldt’s Energy Rated Mile)
Estimated Walking Time: 6 hours 28 minutes (at 2.5 mph + Naismith’s Rule)

Paradise Point, Aster Falls, Aster Park

Trailhead

Visit both Paradise Point and Aster Park via the South Shore Trail. The path begins about 150 feet south of the boat dock near the Two Medicine Store. Paradise Point is a brief side trip and only adds about 0.8 miles and around 20 minutes to the Aster Park hike.

Hike

The footpath meanders through a lodgepole pine and subalpine fir forest. Fire-resistant beargrass is abundant. A common myth claims this member of the lily family only blooms once every seven years. However, it’s precipitation and soil moisture that makes the call.2 If the conditions are just right, the blossoms seem to me like hundreds of long, pure-white puffs of smoke hanging a couple of feet above the forest floor.

At 0.2 miles from the trailhead, the Paradise Point Trail leaves the South Shore Trail and heads for the lake. Spectacular views await at the water’s edge. And, if you’re so inclined, there are fish to be caught. 

From the gravel beach, the massive Rising Wolf Mountain fills the view to the north. Other peaks, in order going counterclockwise, are Mount Helen, followed by Lone Walker Mountain. The ridge on the far left belongs to Sinopah Mountain. Except for Mount Helen, the names of the peaks above all belonged to people who were family. Lone Walker was a Blackfeet Chief and the father of Sinopah. Rising Wolf, the name given to the Hudson’s Bay trapper Hugh Monroe by the Blackfeet, was the husband of Sinopah.5

Glacier National Park, Two Medicine, Paradise Point
Lone Walker Mountain, Mount Helen, and ridge from Rising Wolf Mountain (left to right)

After leaving Paradise Point and rejoining the South Shore Trail, one enters an area of beaver ponds after 0.2 miles. This marshy area is also excellent moose habitat. 

Glacier National Park, Two Medicine, Beaver Pond
Beaver lodge and pond with Sinopah Mountain and Painted Teepee Peak in the background.

The antlered beasts found in Glacier National Park are of the Shiras subspecies, the smallest body moose in North America. Bulls average 800 to 1200 pounds, and cows 600 to 800 pounds. An enormous animal, to be sure. Contrast that with the Alaskan moose, the largest subspecies. Bulls can stand about seven feet at the shoulder and weigh hundreds of pounds more than the Shiras.3

In the park, moose mate from late September to early October.4 During this time, males can be cantankerous. It’s good to keep this in mind when moving through moose country.

Look for the Aster Park Trail, 1.1 miles from the trailhead. The short spur trail to Aster Falls is a tenth of a mile from the junction. From there, the footpath steepens the final 0.6 miles to Aster Park.

Glacier National Park, Two Medicine, Aster Falls
Aster Falls

The panorama from Aster Park overlook is pretty sweet. To the east is Appistoki Peak. The reddish giant north across Two Medicine Lake is Rising Wolf Mountain. The pyramid-shaped summit peeking over the horizon to the northwest belongs to Flinsch Peak (see the featured image at the top of this post). It’s a textbook example of what happens to a mountain when glaciers grind away on opposing sides. Mountains like Flinsch are glacial horns.

In 1911, R. B. Marshall, the chief geographer for the United States Geological Survey, submitted the name Aster Park to the U.S. Board of Geographic Names.1 I’m guessing the purple flowers with yellow centers growing in the area caught his attention. But there is another purple flower with a yellow center growing in the area, often confused with aster. Its name is subalpine fleabane. That name followed by “park” just doesn’t quite have the same ring to it: good call, Mr. Marshall.

Hike Summary

Total Distance (includes Paradise Point): 4.4 miles
Total Elevation Gain: 715 feet; Loss: 194 feet
Difficulty: 5.8, moderate (Difficulty was calculated using Petzoldt’s equation for energy-rated miles.)
Walking Time Estimate: 2 hours 7 minutes (The time was calculated using a walking speed of 2.5 miles-per-hour and Naismith’s Rule for elevation gain.)

First Time on the Going-to-the-Sun Road?

If you’re planning a drive over this historic engineering marvel, I invite you to check out my book – Glacier National Park, Going-to-the-Sun Road: A Traveler’s Guide at Apple Books. Inside, find lots of things to do and places to see while traveling between West Glacier and Saint Mary.

Notes

  1. “Aster Park.” United States Board of Geographic Names. Last modified May 25, 1911. https://geonames.usgs.gov/apex/f?p=138:3:::NO:3:P3_FID,P3_TITLE:779185,Aster%20Park.
  2. “Beargrass Blooms in Glacier National Park.” National Park Service, Glacier National Park. Last modified February 24, 2015. https://www.nps.gov/glac/learn/news/media13-41.htm.
  3. “Moose.” Wikipedia. Last modified January 13, 2021. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moose.
  4. “Moose – Alces americanus.” Montana Field Guide. Montana Natural Heritage Program and Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks.. http://fieldguide.mt.gov/speciesDetail.aspx?elcode=AMALC03010.
  5. Robinson, Donald H. Through the Years: in Glacier National Park. 5th ed. West Glacier, MT: Glacier Natural History Association, Inc., 1973.

Running Eagle Falls

A Fun Family-Friendly Walk

This is an easy stroll that opens up early in the season. There is a viewing platform reached by crossing a plank bridge over Dry Creek. Know that the park service may not install that bridge until mid-June. Don’t worry. The falls are still visible from the place where Dry Creek flows into Two Medicine Creek.

Trailhead

Drive 1.1 miles past the Two Medicine Entrance Station. There’s an obvious parking lot on the right.

Hike

The main Running Eagle Falls Trail begins near the middle of the parking area and continues for 0.2-mile to the falls. The Nature Trail starts at the south end of the parking lot. This route joins the main track before arriving at the falls. Both footpaths are accessible, wide and usually in great shape.

Thimbleberry, cow parsnips, and baneberry grow in the moist areas along the path. All have white blossoms and bloom from June to July. In spring, on calm, misty days, the sweet scent of black cottonwood buds seems to be especially strong. 

Interpretive signs along the Nature Trail introduce the hiker to plants that were important to the Blackfeet people. You’ll learn their name for each plant, identification tips, and how they used it for food, medicine, or fuel. 

In no time at all, the route emerges onto gravel and the high watermark of Dry Fork. Follow the path to the footbridge over this creek and continue toward the wooden viewing platform. In exposed areas, look for the blue nodding blossoms of harebells during July and August. 

Running Eagle Falls

If one visits this place during spring run-off, it appears as though there’s only one waterfall. As the water level subsides, the hidden torrent of water rushing out of the lower half of the cliff face becomes visible.  

A sink hole in Two Medicine Creek upstream from the cascades contributes to this phenomenon. When the water level is high, the underground channel cannot carry the entire water volume. The excess continues downstream and plummets over the precipice. During lower volume stream flows, all the water travels underground to exit at the rock face.

Glacier National Park, Two Medicine, Running Eagle Falls
Running Eagle Falls courtesy of Glacier National Park, Jacob W. Frank (public domain)

Were it not for the incredibly resistant limestone of the Altyn Formation, there may never have been waterfalls here. The valley filling glaciers from the Pleistocene’s Great Ice Age pulverized softer rock. A testament to the durability of this stone is Chief Mountain, which is also Altyn limestone.1 Everything between it and the Rocky Mountain Front eroded.

Something else here is odd. Usually, with sedimentary rock, the age of layers decreases, going from bottom to top. In other words, the top of Rising Wolf Mountain is younger than its base. Streams flowing into the ancient Belt Sea deposited sediments making up the uppermost rock long after that of lower layers.

The Altyn rock over which the water plunges is around 1.5 billion years old.4 The predominant fossils found in this formation are stromatolites created by single-celled cyanobacteria living in shallow water environments. Stromatolites made by these oxygen-producing cells are the earliest evidence of life on Earth and date back even farther to 3.5 billion years.

Contrast that age with that of the rock under the viewing platform. This geologic formation lying below the Altyn is from the late Cretaceous Period and only about 80 million years old.2 During this time, the shallow Western Interior Sea stretched from the arctic over most of Montana to the Gulf of Mexico. Inhabitants included more advanced forms of life, such as sharks, giant bony fish, and plesiosaurs. 

Starting about 150 million years ago, tectonic forces from the west working on the North American continent caused mountains to rise inland. These forces continued for 90 million years. Before the great push ended, the compression became significant enough to shove a piece of the continent several miles deep by a few hundred miles wide, 50 miles eastward over the top of the younger Cretaceous rock.4 It’s called the Lewis Overthrust, and the viewing platform sits at its base.2

Pi’tamaka

Running Eagle Falls gets its name from a remarkable adolescent female Blackfeet warrior. Her name was Otaki until Chief Lone Walker gave her the male name Pi’tamaka or Running Eagle, as a sign of respect and honor for her bravery in battle. 

Pi’tamaka yearned to know her purpose in life. She went to the cave of rushing water for a vision quest. There the adolescent warrior prayed and fasted for most of a week, hoping her spirit helper would give direction. The upshot was that she decided never to marry but to live in service of her people.5 In the late 1870s, Running Eagle died in battle with the Flathead tribe.3

Hike Summary

Total Distance: 0.6 miles
Total Elevation Gain: 39 feet; Loss: 7 feet
Walking Time Estimate: 15 minutes (average 2.5 miles-per-hour)
Difficulty Score: 0.7, easy
(Score calculated using the Petzoldt equation for energy-rated miles.)

A Final Note

If you’re planning a drive over the Going-to-the-Sun Road, I invite you to check out my book – Glacier National Park, Going-to-the-Sun Road: A Traveler’s Guide at Apple Books. Inside, find lots of things to do and places to see while traveling between West Glacier and Saint Mary.

Notes

  1. Dyson, James L. “The Geologic Story of Glacier National Park.” Glacier Natural History Association, 1957. Accessed January 12, 2021. https://www.nps.gov/parkhistory/online_books/glac/3/index.htm.
  2. Keller, Stephen M, ed., and Matthew L. Morgan, ed. “Unfolding the Geology of the West: Volume 44 of Field Guide.” (Boulder, CO: The Geologic Society of America, 2016), Google Books. https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/gsa/books/book/1995/Unfolding-the-Geology-of-the-West
  3. “Pi’tamaka (Running Eagle).” National Park Service. Last modified February 25, 2020. https://www.nps.gov/people/pi-tamaka-running-eagle.htm
  4. Raup, Omer B., Robert L. Earhart, James W. Whipple, and Paul E. Carrara. Geology Along Going-to-the-Sun Road Glacier National Park, Montana. West Glacier, MT: Glacier Natural History Association, 1983.
  5. Schultz, James W. Running Eagle: the warrior girl. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1919.

Scalplock Mountain

Location

The trail to Scalplock Mountain and its fire lookout tower begins near the Walton Ranger station in the southern part of Glacier National Park. From West Glacier, drive 28 miles east on U.S. Highway 2. The entrance to the Walton station is about one mile east of Essex, Montana, just after the bridge over the Middle Fork of the Flathead River. From East Glacier, it’s 29 miles.

Immediately upon entering the complex, you’ll notice a dark-brown-stained cabin on the left. It’s the original structure built in 1932 for rangers assigned to this region of the park. To locate the trailhead, continue to the picnic area.

Why the name Scalplock?

Merriam-Webster defines scalp lock as a long tuft of hair on the crown of an otherwise shaved head, especially of a warrior from some American Indian tribes. 

The Essex Fire in the summer of 1910 destroyed 113,926 acres of forest. This was the park’s first summer and also the summer of the infamous Big Burn. This wildfire destroyed millions of acres in northern Idaho and western Montana. According to Donald H. Robinson, in his book Through the Years, only a small clump of trees remained on top of the mountain after the fire. To someone, that cluster of timber reminded them of a scalp lock.2 Records from the United States Geological Service show the name became official in 1911.

Trip Planning

The footpath cuts through a lush forest, and vegetation crowds the trail along the first part of the route. If it has been wet, your legs and feet will end up in the same condition. So, it’s an excellent idea to pack rain gear.

It’s also a wise decision to carry bear spray where you can access the canister quickly. Know how to use it safely and effectively.

This ten-mile hike can take about five to six hours. Know that there is no water available on the climb nor at the top of Scalplock. Proper hydration is an important planning consideration. A general rule of thumb is to drink about 0.5 liters of water per hour.

The fuel of choice for the body when it’s working hard is quality carbohydrates. Graze as you walk to foster endurance. For this hike, using an average speed of 2.3 miles per hour, a person and their pack totaling 130 pounds will burn about 235 calories per hour, a 160 pound combo – 288 calories, 190 pounds – 343 calories, and at 220 pounds an estimated 397 calories per hour. (I calculated the number of calories using CalTopo to determine slopes and an online calculator that uses the military’s updated Load Carriage Decision Aid.)

On The Trail

The first section is part of the South Boundary Trail and is mellow for about the first 0.6 miles. At that point, a suspension bridge crosses Ole Creek. After the water crossing, there is an easy climb for another 0.6 miles to the junction with the Ole Creek Trail. Stay left.

Suspension Bridge Over Ole Creek, Glacier National Park
Suspension Bridge across Ole Creek

The intersection with the Scalplock Lookout Trail is 0.1 miles farther. Take the path to the right. It’s a steady climb from that point to the top. Your legs will need to lift you 2,847 feet over the next 3.6 miles. Someone who considers themselves out of shape will probably not enjoy this climb.

Huckleberries and thimbleberries ripen mid-July in lower elevations to early September at higher locations. The Scalplock Trail has an abundance of both fruits. Predictably, bears come to feed on this vital food source. Be vigilant and make enough noise, so not to surprise one of these magnificent animals.

You’ll know the top is near when the forest canopy opens up on the ridge. Just before the last switchback, the lookout is visible through the trees. The Park Service built the structure in 1931 in response to fires originating along the railroad and U.S. Highway 2 corridor. Park Service personnel modernized the tower with solar panels. Probably the same table and chairs, though.

View Southeast from Scalplock Mountain, Glacier National Park
Running Rabbit Mountain in the foreground with Snowslip Mountain in the background center.

Doug Peacock, author, naturalist, and close friend of Edward Abbey (The Monkey Wrench Gang) manned the Scalplock and Huckleberry Lookouts during the years 1976 to 1984.¹ Peacock’s book, Grizzly Years: In Search of American Wilderness, is about his time alone in the Wyoming and Montana mountains, his life with grizzlies, and how they helped him heal from the atrocities he experienced in Viet Nam. I enjoyed it.

On a cloudless day, Mount Saint Nicholas, Salvage Mountain, and Church Butte rise to the north across the Park Creek Valley. Two Medicine Pass is at the far end of Park Creek. To the east on the far side of the Ole Creek Valley is Elk Mountain, which had its own fire lookout tower at one time. Looking to the immediate south and southeast are Running Rabbit Mountain, Snowslip Mountain, and Mount Shields. The Great Bear Wilderness stretches to the horizon on the south side of the U.S. Highway 2 (Roosevelt Highway).

View North from Scalplock Fire Lookout, Glacier National Park
Looking north across Park Creek Valley.

Hike Summary

Scalplock Mountain Summit: 6,919 feet
Total Distance: 10 miles
Total Elevation Gain: 3,347 feet; Loss: 190 feet
Walking Time Estimate: 5 to 6 hours
Difficulty Score: 16.4, strenuous
(Score calculated using the Petzoldt equation for energy-rated miles.)
For difficulty comparisons: St. Mary Falls 2.4, Bullhead Lake 7.8, Iceberg Lake 12.9, Dawson/Pitamakan Loop 24.7.

Before You Go . . .

If you’ve found my posts useful, I invite you to check out my book Glacier National Park, Going-to-the-Sun Road: A Traveler’s Guide. Within this MultiTouch iBook are descriptions of hikes originating along the road corridor from West Glacier to Saint Mary. Interactive maps and photo galleries are included. You’ll also find points of interest highlighted, history, and other recreational opportunities. Thanks for visiting.


Notes

  1. Butler, David R. Fire Lookouts of Glacier National Park. Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing, 2014.
  2. Robinson, Donald H. Through the Years in Glacier National Park. West Glacier, MT: Glacier Natural History Association, Inc., 1973.
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